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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 45(3); 2015 > Article
단풍딸기및 긴잎단풍딸기의 분류학적 정체성과 한반도 내 분포

적 요

안면도와 거제도에서 한반도 미기록식물인 장미과 산딸기속의 Rubus palmatus Thunb. var. palmatus을 발견하였고, 긴잎단풍딸기로 국명을 새롭게 부여하였다. 단풍딸기(R. palmatus var. coptophyllus (A. Gray) Kuntze)와는 잎이 3개로 갈라지거나 혹은 거의 갈라지지 않는 특징으로 구별된다. 또한 한반도 분포가 확인된 바 없는 단풍딸기의 거제도 분포를 처음으로 보고하였다. 마지막으로UPS에 소장된 Thunberg의 표본(UPS-THUNB. 12282)을 선정기준표본으로 지정하였다.

Abstract

Rubus palmatus Thunb. var. palmatus (Rosaceae) was first discovered in Anmyeon-do and Geoje-do, Korea, and the new Korean name 'Gin-yip-dan-pung-ttal-gi' was given. This taxon can be distinguished from var. coptophyllus by having 3-lobed or rarely undivided leaves. We, for the first time, report the distribution of R. palmatus var. coptophyllus (A. Gray) Kuntze from the island of Geoje-do in Korea and clarified the Korean vernacular name of ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi.’ Finally, we designated the lectotype of R. palmatus using C. P. Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282).

Genus Rubus L. comprises of approximately 700 species and shows, with an exception in Antarctica, worldwide distribution patterns (Thompson, 1995). It has been difficult to produce infrageneric classification system, but the most recent global taxonomic treatment of genus includes nearly 430 species in 12 subgenera (Focke, 1910, 1911, 1914). The most recent floristic treatment of Korea (Yang and Pak, 2007) and taxonomic study (Yang, 2005; Yang and Pak, 2007) recognize 20 taxa in genus Rubus, 14 of which belong to subgenus Idaeobatus Focke, one of two subgenera which occur primarily in eastern Asia.
Rubus palmatus Thunb. from Korea was mentioned by Maximowicz (1872), Forbes and Hemsley (1891), and Palibin (1898). However, in the “Flora Sylvatica Koreana”, Nakai (1918) argued that R. palmatus along two other species of Rubus, i.e., R. trifidus Thunb. and R. humulifolius C. A. Meyer, do not occur in the Korean Peninsula. However, R. palmatus, known to occur on the island of Anmyeon-do, Chungnam Province, has been listed in several modern floristic treatments under the Korean vernacular name of ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi’ (e.g., Lee T. B. 1980e.g., Lee T. B. 2003; Lee Y. N. 1996; Lee W. C. 1996, 2008; Yang and Pak, 2007). During the course of taxonomic study of the genus Rubus in Korea, significant efforts have been made to determine the taxonomic entity of R. palmatus and its distribution in Korea (Yang, 2005). We examined specimens deposited at major herbaria in Korea (CBU, CNU, KNU, KWNU, SKK, SNU and SNUA), but were not able to find any specimens with palmately 3–5 deeply lobed leaves collected from Anmyeon-do. Rather, there are several specimens of this taxon collected from Japan. Therefore, it was uncertain whether the taxon of palmately 3–5 deeply lobed leaves really exists in the Korean Peninsula. In addition, different scientific names have been used for this taxon in various floristic treatments: R. palmatus Thunb. by Lee T. B. (1980, 2003), while R. palmatus var. coptophyllus (A. Gray) Kuntze by Lee W. C. (1996, 2008) and Lee Y. N. (2008). These lead to a taxonomic confusion about the taxonomic identity of this taxon as well as its existence in Korea. In this study, therefore, we determined the taxonomic identity of R. palmatus and its distribution in Korea and clarified the Korean vernacular name of ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi’.

Materials and Methods

To confirm the distribution of the two varieties of R. palmatus in the Korean Peninsula, we examined ca. 3,000 specimens deposited at major herbaria in Korea (i.e., CBU, CNU, KNU, KWNU, SKK, SNU and SNUA). Furthermore, we checked the type of R. palmatus, C. P. Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282) in Uppsala University Herbarium (UPS) and holotypes (Momiyama and Ohba, 1988) of R. edulis Koidz. and R. dulcis Koidz., which were considered as synonyms of R. palmatus in Tokyo University Herbarium (TI). We also ascertained the original descriptions of R. palmatus (Thunberg, 1784) and R. coptophyllus (Perry, 1857). Lastly, we followed the International Code of Nomenclature (ICN; McNeil et al., 2012) for lectotypication of R. palmatus.

Results and Discussion

The taxonomic identity of R. palmatus

In the Japanese literature, two taxa, R. palmatus var. palmatus (ナガバモミジイチゴ) and R. palmatus var. coptophyllus (モミジイチゴ), can be distinguished based primarily on leaf shape. Rubus palmatus var. palmatus has 3 clefted or shallowly lobed or even rarely unlobed leaves, whereas R. palmatus var. coptophyllus has palmately 3–5-lobed leaves (Ohwi,1965; Kimura and Murata, 1979; Iwatsuki et al., 2001). Interestingly, Lee T. B. (1980, 2003) used the scientific name of only R. palmatus for ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi’ without recognization of variety of R. palmatus, even though the descriptions best fit to the characteristics of R. palmatus var. coptophyllus which have palmately 3–5-lobed leaves. After conducting thorough field works in Korea, we determined that ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi’ which was described as having palmately 3–5-lobed leaves in the floristic treatments in Korea, does not occur on Anmyeon-do. Rather, we discovered ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi’ with palmately 3–5-deeply lobed leaves in Jisepori, Geojedo, which best fits to the characteristics of R. palmatus var. coptophyllus. Furthermore, we found R. palmatus var. palmatus which is characterized by having 3 shallowly lobed or rarely unlobed leaves from the islands of Anmyeon-do and Geoje-do. Thus, we conclude that two varieties of R. palmatus, i.e., var. palmatus and var. coptyphyllus, exist in the Korean Peninsula. The former has 3-clefted or shallowly lobed or even rarely unlobed leaves, whereas the latter has palmately 3–5-deeply lobed leaves. The taxon with the Korean common name of ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi’ refers to R. palmatus var. coptophyllus. Rubus palmatus var. palmatus with 3 shallowly lobed or rarely unlobed leaves has never been reported in the Korean flora until now. Therefore, we report R. palmatus var. palmatus from Anmyeon-do and Geoje-do as unrecorded taxon of Korean flora (Fig. 1). A new Korean vernacular name of ‘Gin-yip-dan-pung-ttal-gi’ is given to R. palmatus Thunb. var. palmatus to avoid confusion with an existing name. In addition, we report in this study that R. palmatus var. coptophyllus occurs in Korea, specifically in the island of Geoje-do (Fig. 2) and clarify the Korean vernacular name of ‘Dan-pung-ttal-gi.’ A dichotomous key primarily based on leaf morphology between R. palmatus var. palmatus and R. palmatus var. coptophyllus is also provided.

Typification of R. palmatus

The Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282) contains three fragments and shows variation in leaf shape, ranging from unlobed leaves of “a” and “b” fragments to palmately lobed leaves of “c” fragment. The locality of three fragments was written as “Ki itjigo, e Japonia”. However, this locality information does not specify any particular region in Japan since “Ki itjigo” refers to Rubus in Japanese. Later, two fragments of “a” and “b” were annonated as R. dulcis, while “c” fragment as R. coptophyllus A. Gray by G. Koidzumi in 1925. In addition, the fragmements of “a” and “b” were hand written annonated as R. microphyllus Wild., while “c” fragment as R. palmatus by an anonymous taxonomist in unknown period. Therefore, it is highly likely that two fragments, “a” and “b”, belong to the same taxon and represent one specimen (or collection). Untill now, type of R. palmatus was not designated yet using the Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282). When the type consists of a mixture of different taxa, the part that corresponds–to the original description should be designated as the lectotype (Art. 9.14, McNeil et al., 2012). The “a” and “b” fragment of the C. P. Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282) that corresponds most nearly with the original description or diagnosis of R. palmatus var. palmatus was designated as a lectotype (Fig. 3).

Taxanomic treatment

Taxonomy

Rubus palmatus Thunb. in Murray, Syst. Veg. 14: 475, 1784. Type. Japan, C.P.Thunberg s.n. [UPS-THUNB. 12282] “a” and “b” fragments (lectotype, designated here, UPS !) (Fig. 3).
A deciduous shrub, 2 m tall. Stem glabrous, green, with stout flat prickles. Leave simple, alternate; blade ovate to narrowly 3–7 cm long, 3 lobed or clefted, rarely undivided, 2.5–4cm wide, apex long acute to acuminate, base truncate to shallowly cordate, margins irregularly acute-toothed lobes, fine hairs on nerves on both sides; petiole often prickly, 30–45 mm long; stipules at base of petiole, linear-lanceolate. Inflorescence solitary, nodding; pedicel 5–10 mm long, sparingly soft pubescent, often with prickles. Flowers pentamerous; calyx shallowly campanulate, sepals lanceolate, attenuate-acuminate, 8 mm long, more or less appressed pubescent on both surface; petals white, ovate, acute, 12–17 mm long, 7–10 mm wide; ovary hairy. Fruit drupecetum, globose, yellow.
The type specimen of R. palmatus, i.e., C. P. Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282), contains three fragments (“a”, “b”, and “c”) belonging to two different taxa. G. Koidzumi annotated “a” and “b” fragments as R. dulcis, while “c” fragment as R. coptophyllus. An anonymous taxonomist recognized them as R. microphyllus and R. palmatus without any specification for each fragment. This type specimen, therefore, contains parts belonging to more than one taxon. Because R. dulcis is a synonym of R. palmatus var. palmatus, we attempted to designate herein lectotype of R. palmatus var. palmatus, using “a” and “b” fragments of C. P. Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282).
Typification: According to Art. 9.2, 9.11 and 9.14 of ICN (McNeil et al., 2012), we designate herein “a” and “b” fragment of C. P. Thunberg’s specimen (UPS-THUNB. 12282) as lectotype since it corresponds most nearly with the diagnosis of R. palmatus var. palmatus.

Key to the varieties of R . palmatus

  • 1. Leaves ovate, narrowly 3-lobed, rarely undivided ·········· ························ var. palmatus (Gin-yip-dan-pung-ttal-gi)

  • 1. Leaves ovate, palmately 3–5-lobed ·································· ································ var. coptophyllus (Dan-pung-ttal-gi)

Var. palmatus
Rubus edulis Koidz. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 283, 1914. TYPE: Japan. Honshu, Shiga, Prov. Ohmi, Ibukiyama, May 1914, G. Koidzumi s.n. (holotype, TI!)
Rubus dulcis Koidz. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 28: 284, 1914. TYPE: Japan. Honshu, Yamaguchi, Prov. Suwo Mt. Namerayama, May 1914, G. Koidzumi s.n. (lectotype, designated by Y. Momiyama and H. Ohba, 1988, TI!)
  • Korean name: Gin-yip-dan-pung-ttal-gi (긴잎단풍딸기)

  • Distribution: Japan, Korea (Anmyeon-do, Geoje-do).

  • Specimens examined: KOREA. Chungnam: Anmyeondo, Anmyeoneup, Sungeunri Songrim Temple, 5 March 1999, J. Y. Yang, S. W. Park & J.-H. Park Y968 (KNU); Kyungnam: Geojedo, Dongbumyeon Hakdongrii Bonggoksa Temple, 15, May 2010, W. Lee, J. S. Kim & J. Y. Yang Y1255 (KNU); Geojedo, Dongbumyeon Hakdongrii Bonggoksa Temple, 11 April 2013, H. B. Yang, J. S. Yi, G. E. Son & J. Y. Yang s.n. (SKK); Geojedo, Dongbumyeon Hakdongrii Bonggoksa Temple, 28, May 2015, W. Lee s.n. (KNU). JAPAN. Nagasaki, 1862, R. Oldham K000737790 (K); Tokyo Nishitama-gun, 14 Apr. 1985, K. T. Lee, K. Oh s.n. (KWNU); Kyoto, 19 May 1985, W. Lee & K. Oh 8637 (KWNU); Kyoto, May 19 1985, W. Lee & K. Oh 8638 (KWNU); Daihisan, 16 June 1985, W. Lee & K. Oh s.n. (KWNU); Tajima, Myohken-san Obtaki 450 m, 24 Apr. 1990, Y. Saiki & K. S. Lee s.n. (CBU) Miyazaki Pref, Nishi-usaki-Gun, Hinokage Cho, Omochi Valley in the upper stream of Hinokage River, elev. 600 m, 30 May 2004, S. Noshiro, A. Kagawa, M. Seki, M. Hanzawa, A. Ohsawa, S. Kaneko, S. Suzuki, Y. Kudoh, M. Hasegawa s.n. (TI).

Note: This taxon shows wide range of variations in the leaf shape and occurs in mountain foothills and roadsides.
Var. coptophyllus (A. Gray) Kuntze, Meth. Spec. Beschreib. Rubus. 95, 1879.
Rubus coptophyllus A. Gray, Narr. Exped. China Japan [Perry] 2: 311 (1857). Type. Japan. Kanagawa, Yokohama, without date, S. W. Williams & J. Morrow s.n. (holotype, GH!)
  • Korean name: Dan-pung-ttal-gi (단풍딸기)

    Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, palmately 3–5-lobed.
  • Distribution: Japan, Korea (Geoje-do)

  • Specimens examined: KOREA. Kyungnam: Geojedo, Ilunmyeon Jisepori Seimal Lighthouse, 15, May 2010, W. Lee, J. S. Kim & J. Y. Yang Y1256 (KNU); Geojedo, Ilunmyeon Jisepori Seimal Lighthouse, 11 April 2013, H. B. Yang, J. S. Yi, G. E. Son & J. Y. Yang s.n. (SKK); Geojedo, Ilunmyeon Jisepori Seimal Lighthouse, 28, May 2015, W. Lee s.n. (KNU). JAPAN. c fragment C. P. Thunberg s.n. (UPS-THUNB. 12282); Tokyo, 14 Apr. 1985, W. Lee & K. Oh 8641 (KWNU); Tokyo, 14 Apr. 1985 W.Lee & K. Oh 8642 (KWNU); Ivata Pref. Mt. Coyocan, 4 May 1983, M. Miedo s.n. (KNU); Tokyo, 14 Apr. 1985, W. Lee & K. Oh 8643 (KWNU); Kyoto, 19 May 1985, W. C. Lee & K. Oh s.n. (KWNU); Tochigi Pref., Nikko-shi, Unryu-keikoku 1200 m–1400 m., 14 July 1985, H .T. Im s.n. (CNU); Fukushima Pref., Yama-gun, Inawasiro-cho, Kabayachi. 900 m–950 m elev., 22 Aug. 1986, H. T. Im, T. Kawahara. s.n. (CNU); Tokyo Hochioji City Kobiki-cho, 13 Apr. 1987, T. Kawahara & H. T. Im s.n. (CNU) Koshikawa Botanical garden Tokyo University, 30 May 1987, H. T. Im s.n. (CNU) Honshu, Miyagi Pref. Tamatsukuri-gun Narugocho, Onikoube, Nuruyu-zawa, elev. 450 m, 7 May 1987, T. Kajita s.n. (TI).

Note: Although this taxon has been listed and known to occur on the island of Anmyeon-do, it was confirmed that the record was based on misidentification in our study. We, for the first time, found this taxon from the island of Geoje-do and reported it in this study. Rubus palmatus var. coptophyllus can be easily distinguished from R. palmatus var. palmatus by having palmately 3–5-deeply lobed leaves.

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Mats Hijertson in Uppsala university Herbarium (UPS) for providing us the photo of C. P. Thunberg’s specimen and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions on the earlier version of manuscript.

Fig. 1.
Rubus palmatus Thunb. var. palmatus (긴잎단풍딸기, Gin-yip-dan-pung-ttal-gi). A. Specimen; B. Habit; C. Fruits
kjpt-45-3-221f1.gif
Fig. 2.
Rubus palmatus Thunb.var. coptophyllus (A.Gray) Kuntze (단풍딸기, Dan-pung-ttal-gi). A. Specimen; B. Habit; C. Fruits
kjpt-45-3-221f2.gif
Fig. 3.
The lectotype of Rubus palmatus Thunb. deposited in UPS. (UPS-THUNB. 12282) The “a” and “b” fragments are designated as the lectotype in this study.
kjpt-45-3-221f3.gif

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