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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 51(1); 2021 > Article
KIM, YANG, LIM, and KIM: A new record of Scutellaria (Lamiaceae) in Korean flora: S. guilielmii A. Gray

Abstract

A new distribution of Scutellaria guilielmii A. Gray is discovered in Korea. This species was collected from seashores on Pyoseon-ri, Pyoseon-myeon, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do. S. guilielmii is distinguished from other related Korean taxa of the genus by having broadly winged nutlets (fruits). Here, we provide a precise description, illustrations, key to the related taxa, and photographs of its habitat. The new Korean name is given as ‘Nal-gae-gol-mu-kkot’, considering the broadly winged nutlets (fruits). In addition, new habitats are likely to be discovered through plant biodiversity surveys of the southwestern coastal islands.

Scutellaria L., with 471 species, is one of the largest genera in the family Lamiaceae (Govaerts et al., 2021). Although Scutellaria is primarily distributed in temperate regions and on tropical mountains (Paton, 1990; Harley et al., 2004), the genus can be found in most areas of the world except the Amazon basin, lowland tropical Africa, and Pacific Islands (Paton et al., 2016). The plants are annual or perennial herbs and rarely subshrubs or aquatic species (Lee and Kim, 2019). Many Scutellaria species possess medicinal uses, and some species are of economic importance (Lee et al., 2018; Zhao et al., 2020). Previously, morphological data have suggested the infrageneric classification of the genus Scutellaria with two subgenera: Scutellaria and Apeltanthus (Nevski ex Juz.) Juz. Within the subgenus Scutellaria, there are five sections: Anaspis (Rech.f.) Paton, Perilomia (Kunth) Epling, Salazaria (Torrey) Paton, Salviifoliae (Boiss.) J. R. Edm., and Scutellaria. Within subgenus Apeltanthus, there are two sections: Apeltanthus and Lupulinaria (A. Ham.) Paton (Paton, 1990).
Scutellaria guilielmii A. Gray belongs to subg. Scutellaria sect. Scutellaria. The sect. Scutellaria comprises ca. 240 species that are mainly distributed in the Old and New Worlds (Paton, 1990). S. guilielmii of which distribution has been reported in China and Japan (Paton, 1990; Murata and Yamazaki, 1993; Li and Hedge, 1994; Ohashi et al., 2008; Yonekura, 2017).
In Korea, 18 taxa in the genus Scutellaria are reported; S. asperiflora Nakai, S. baicalensis Georgi, S. barbata D. Don, S. dependens Maxim., S. indica L., S. indica var. coccinea S. Kim & S. Lee, S. indica var. parvifolia Makino, S. indica var. tsusimensis (H. Hara) Ohwi, S. insignis Nakai, S. moniliorrhiza Kom., S. orthocalyx Hand.-Mazz., S. pekinensis var. alpina (Nakai) H. Hara, S. pekinensis var. maxima S. Kim & S. Lee, S. pekinensis var. transitra (Makino) H. Hara, S. pekinensis var. ussuriensis (Regel) Hand.-Mazz., S. regeliana Nakai, S. strigillosa Hemsl., and S. tuberifera C. Y. Wu & C. Chen (Kim and Lee, 1995; Yang, 2004; Kim et al., 2011; Kim, 2018; Lee et al., 2018; Suh and Park, 2018; Lee and Kim, 2019).
During the Plant Diversity Research on Jejudo Island, an unrecorded species, Scutellaria guilielmii A. Gray was confirmed in the seashores in Pyoseon-ri, Pyoseon-myeon, Seogwipo-si in Korea. Here, we provided its morphological description, detailed illustrations, and a key to the related taxa in Korea.

Materials and Methods

Specimens of Scutellaria guilielmii collected from Jejudo Island, Korea were identified from the descriptions in literature (Paton, 1990; Murata and Yamazaki, 1993; Li and Hedge, 1994; Yonekura, 2017). In addition, keys of Korean Scutellaria followed (Kim, 2018; Lee et al., 2018). The detail of nutlet’s (fruits) morphology were investigated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the use of JEOL, JSM-6390LV (Tokyo, Japan). SEM was operated at 20 kV with a working distance of 15 mm and photographed. All voucher specimens are deposited at the herbarium of the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (KB).

Taxonomic Treatment

Scutellaria guilielmii A. Gray, AAAS Bull. 21: 25, 1873 (Figs. 1, 2).−TYPE: Japan. Wright, C. 213 (GH, seen only photos!).
Korean name: Nal-gae-gol-mu-kkot (날개골무꽃)
Herbs perennial, 10–40 cm tall. Rhizomes whitish, slender, stoloniferous. Stems erect or prostrate-ascending, branched, quadrangular, 1–1.5 mm diam., glabrous to sparsely pilose upward. Leaves: petiole 1–13 mm long, 1–3 cm basally, subglabrous or densely pilose; blade circular-ovate to narrowly ovate, broadly ovate-orbicular to subreniform basally, 0.5–2 × 0.2–2.2 cm, apex obtuse to rounded, base cordate to subtruncate, margins coarsely crenate, both surfaces pubescent with somewhat appressed hairs, with long spreading simple hairs along margins and abaxial veins. Inflorescences solitary, in axils of upper leaves; pedicels 2–4 mm long, pubescent with long spreading simple hairs. Flowers zygomorphic; calyx ca. 3 mm, pubescent with long spreading simple hairs outside, upper lip folded into a scutellum; scutellum ca. 0.6 mm long; corolla purple with white on throat, ca. 5 mm long, sparsely pubescent outside, tube nearly straight; upper lip erect, circular, ca. 1.2 mm long; apex rounded or emarginate; middle lobe of lower lip semicircular, more or less curved downward, apex emarginate, longer than upper lip; lateral lobes oblong-ovate. Fruits nutlets, brown, oblate, ca 1.5 mm in diam., including wing, abaxially densely tuberculate or papillate, with a cylindrical umbo near middle, densely spiny around umbo on adaxial side, equatorial plane circumvented by a wing ca. 0.5 mm wide, margin irregularly pectinate. Chromosome number 2n = 28, reported by Shiuchi and Kanemoto (1999).
Flowering: April to June.
Fruiting: May to July.
Distribution: Korea, China, and Japan.
Specimens examined: KOREA. Jeju-do: Seogwipo-si, Pyoseon-myeon, Pyoseon-ri, 26 May 2020, Young-Tae Yang KIMJH20125, KIMJH20126, KIMJH20127 (KB); same locality, 1 Jun 2020, Jung-Hyun Kim & Sea-rom Lee KIMJH20128, KIMJH20129, KIMJH20130, KIMJH20131, KIMJH20132, KIMJH20133, KIMJH20134, KIMJH20135, KIMJH20136 (KB).

Key to the species of Scutellaria with the axillary inflorescence in Korea

  • 1. Stolons terminated by tubers ···· S. tuberifera 제주골무꽃

  • 1. Stolons without tubers.

    • 2. Corolla less than 10 mm long; upper lip shorter than lower lip.

      • 3. Nutlets winged ················ S. guilielmii 날개골무꽃

      • 3. Nutlets wingless ············· S. dependens 애기골무꽃

    • 2. Corolla more than 1.5 cm long; upper lip equaling lower lip.

      • 4. Rhizomes moniliform; stems glabrous ······················ ····································· S. moniliorrhiza 구슬골무꽃

      • 4. Rhizomes not moniliform; stems pubescent.

        • 5. Leaves linear to lanceolate ···································· ······································· S. regeliana 가는골무꽃

        • 5. Leaves ovate to elliptic ·· S. strigillosa 참골무꽃

Notes: Scutellaria guilielmii A. Gray was known to be distributed in China and Japan. This species is native range of East, North-Central, and South China, and Southern Japan to Ryukyu Islands (Paton, 1990; Murata and Yamazaki, 1993; Li and Hedge, 1994; Ohashi et al., 2008; Yonekura, 2017). From this study, the new natural distribution is discovered at seashores in Pyoseon-ri, Pyoseon-myeon, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do, Korea (Fig. 3). The population was composed of 200 individuals within 10 × 5 m2 in size. The upper vegetation was made up of Ulmus parvifolia Jacq., Rosa lucieae Franch. & Rochebr. ex Crép., Euonymus japonicus Thunb., Vitex rotundifolia L.f., and Lonicera japonica Thunb., etc. The low vegetation was made up of Boehmeria pannosa Nakai & Satake ex Oka, Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze, Rumex acetosa L., R. crispus L., Raphanus sativus var. raphanistroides (Makino) Makino, Lathyrus japonicus Willd., Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus Regel, Trifolium campestre Schreb., T. repens L., Vicia angustifolia L. ex Reichard, Thesium chinense Turcz., Euphorbia jolkinii Boiss., Oxalis dillenii Jacq., Angelica japonica A. Gray, Peucedanum japonicum Thunb., Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC., Artemisia indica Willd., Elymus ciliaris (Trin.) Tzvelev, E. dahuricus Turcz. ex Griseb., Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, and Poa sphondylodes Trin.
Scutellaria guilielmii A. Gray was distinguished by Gray (1873) from S. hederacea Kunth & Bouché. Following the description of morphological features of the species in the original publication, he stated S. hederacea? Gray, in Perry’s Japan Exped. iii. page 316, and Bot. Contrib. Proc. Amer. Acad. viii. page 370, not of Kunth and Bouché. It appears from a note by Vatke, in Bot. Zeit., 1872, page 717, that S. hederacea is identical with the Tasmanian S. humils, and its nutlets were originally described as papillate or tuberculate, and by implication wingless (Ohashi and Ohashi, 2008). In addition, S. guilielmii can be distinguished from other related taxa of the genus by having broadly winged nutlets (fruits).

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR202002106, NIBR202102103).

NOTES

Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Fig. 1.
Photographs of Scutellria guilielmii A. Gray. A. Habit. B. Rhizome. C. Stem. D. Leaf. E. Flower (frontal view). F. Flower (lateral view). G. Nutlets. H. Fruits (a, abaxial view; b, lateral view; c, adaxial view). I. Scanning electron microscopy of fruits (a, abaxial view; b, lateral view; c, adaxial view).
kjpt-51-1-103f1.jpg
Fig. 2.
Illustrations of Scutellria guilielmii A. Gray. A. Habit. B. Stem. C. Leaf. D. Flower (frontal view). E. Flower (lateral view). F. Calyx. G. Nutlets. H. Fruits (abaxial view). I. Fruits (adaxial view).
kjpt-51-1-103f2.jpg
Fig. 3.
Distribution map of Scutellria guilielmii A. Gray in Korea.
kjpt-51-1-103f3.jpg

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