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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 49(3); 2019 > Article
YIM, CHOI, and HYUN: Floristic study of bryophytes in Hangyeong Gotjawal (Cheongsu-ri), Jejudo Island

Abstract

Recently, it has become known that Gotjawal terrain is an important area, therefore the study on this area has conducted in the geological, ecological, and cultural aspects. The studies on bryophytes of Gotjawal, however, have not been sufficiently performed. This study presents a survey on the bryophytes of the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri at Hangyeong Gotjawal in the southwestern part of Jejudo Island, Korea. A total of 72 taxa belonging to the Bryophyta (18 families 43 genera 55 species) and Marchantiophyta (11 families 13 genera 17 species) were determined and the liverwort index was 23.6%. Predominant life-form was weft. The rates of the bryophytes dominating in mesic to hygric sites were higher than the bryophytes mainly observed in xeric habitats. These values indicate that the forests are widespread and dense in this study area. Upon an investigation of the substrates, the bryophytes on rocks were most diverse. The results appear to stem from the fact that volcanic rock masses of various sizes lay scattered over the study area, offering numerous micro-habitats for bryophyte due to one of the characteristics of Gotjawal. We suggest that more detailed studies should be conducted at the regional scale to establish the bryophyte flora of Gotjawal and the evergreen broad-leaved forests on Jejudo Island.

Jejudo Island was formed by volcanic activities and has the unique topological and geological features. In this unique volcanic terrain, forests established on lava flow are scattered around the island, known as “Gotjawal,” which is a newly coined compound word and comes from dialects spoken on Jejudo Island (Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 2009; Yoon, 2014). It is difficult to access Gotjawal and use it for agricultural purpose, as the trees and vines are dense, rocks of various sizes are scattered randomly, and the depth of soil is shallow in Gotjawal. Therefore, thus far it has only been used for grazing cattle, making charcoal or as a firewood source and is commonly recognized as useless land (Jeon et al., 2012; Jeong, 2012, 2015; Yoon, 2014). Recently, however, it has become known that Gotjawal is an area inhabited by various plants and animals where unique and various ecosystems are also sustained; the area serves as a natural waterway of the type necessary to create underground water, and it has high preservation values (Jeon et al., 2012; Kang et al., 2013; Yoon, 2014; Jeong, 2015). In addition, its cultural importance has also emerged. Therefore, the scientific studies of Gotjawal have been conducted to examine geological, ecological, and cultural aspects (Jeong et al., 2013; Jeon et al., 2015). However, a floristic study of bryophytes has not been conducted, except for that Dongbaek-dongsan at Seonheul Gotjawal in the northeastern part by Yim et al. (2013) and Subtropical Forest of Nabeup-ri at Aewol Gotjawal in the southwestern part by Yim and Hyun (2018).
The area and range of Gotjawal terrain have not been yet established (Jeon et al., 2015). According to Song (2000), Gotjawal can be divided into four major terrains, i.e., Gujwa-Seongsan, Jocheon-Hamdeok, Hangyeong-Andeok, and Aewol. Among them, Hangyeong-Andeok Gotjawal terrain is divided into Doneori Gotjawal lava flow and Byeongak Gotjawal lava flow. Doneori Gotjawal lava flow begun from the vicinity of Doneri Oreum (439 m above sea level) and branched off into Wollyeong-ri, Hallim-eup and Yeongnak-ri, Daejeong-eup. Its flow distance is 12.5 km, which is longest of the Gotjawal lava flows. Byeongak Gotjawal lava flow was erupted from Byeongak Oreum (418 m above sea level). The distance is 9 km and wide is 2–3 km (Song, 2003a, 2003b).
The evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri, which is a branch of Doneori Gotjawal lava flow of Hangyeong-Andeok Gotjawal terrain located in the southwestern part of Jejudo Island, is also known as Sanyang Gotjawal. This area consists of dense evergreen broad-leaved forests where Quercus glauca Thunb., Castanopisis sieboldii (Makino) Hatus., Neolitsea sericea (Blume) Koidz., and Machilus japonica Siebold & Zucc. etc. are distributed on thwide rock fields. In addition, various ferns such as Asplenium ritoense Hayata and A. varians Wall. ex Hook. & Grev. etc. are inhabit and form a unique landscape. The rare plants, Maesa japonica (Thunb.) Moritzi & Zoll. and Neocheiropteris ensata (Thunb.) Ching etc. are also inhabit. M. japonica is an evergreen shrub recently reported as unrecorded plants (Moon et al., 2006), and are known to be distributed only in this area and its environs. In addition, N. ensata forms the largest population in Korea. From these reasons, this area is considered very important region from an academic point of view. The area is adjacent to the village, and has been damaged by the grazing cattle, making charcoal, or as a firewood source in the past. The vegetation is currently restored. Plants, animals, and stones etc., however, can be collected without permission due to its easy access. Moreover, since it is managed jointly by the village, there is a possibility of serious damage if conservation measures are not taken. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate natural resources to enhance the value of the area, come up with specific management measures for the preservation of species and natural habitat, and induce the development of the area as an ecotourism destination that also contributes to improving the income level of local residents.
The purpose of this study was to establish a bryophyte flora of the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri at Hangyeong Gotjawal. Furthermore, this study aims to contribute to studies of the bryophyte flora of Gotjawal and the evergreen broad-leaved forests on Jejudo Island on a regional scale and to provide basic data for selecting relevant indicator species.

Materials and Methods

Field surveys

Field surveys were carried out in the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri at Hangyeong Gotjawal with an area of approximately 501,223 m2 (Fig. 1), a total of 7 times from August 2011 to September 2018.

Identification, nomenclature, and arrangement of taxa

The samples collected in the investigated area were identified at species level with macroscopic morphology and microscopic features using relevant literatures (Iwatsuki and Mizutani, 1972; Inoue, 1974, 1976; Choe, 1980; Noguchi, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1994; Gao et al., 1999; Iwatsuki, 2001; Li et al., 2001; Wu et al., 2002; Cao et al., 2003). The voucher specimens were deposited in Warm Temperate and Subtropical Forest Research Center in Korea (WFRC). Only one collection number for each taxon were cited to avoid repetition in the floristic list. The nomenclature and arrangement of taxa are followed the system which is proposed by Goffinet et al. (2009) and Crandall-Stotler et al. (2009) for the mosses and liverworts respectively.

Life-forms and substrates

The life-forms of bryophytes in the study area have been estimated using Mägdefrau (1982), and also they are given in the floristic list for each taxon. The records of substrates for each taxon were included in this list.

Number of bryophyte taxa and liverwort index

We compared the number of taxa and liverwort index of the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri at Hangyeong Gotjawal with other localities based on revealed literatures [i.e., Taebaeksan Mt. (Papp, 2008), Deogyusan Mt. (Choi et al., 2010; Yoon et al., 2011), Dongbaek-dongsan (Yim et al., 2013), Gayasan Mt. (Sin, 2016a), Sobaeksan Mt. (Sin, 2016b), and Subtropical Forest of Nabeup-ri (Yim and Hyun, 2018)]. The liverwort index, which is based on the character that the liverworts and hornworts tend to prefer more humid conditions than mosses, was calculated as follow (Nakanishi, 2001):
Liverwortindex(%)=No.ofliverworts+No.ofhornwortsThetotalNo.ofbryophytes×100

Results and Discussion

The number of taxa and liverwort index

In this study, a total of 72 taxa belonging to the Bryophyta (18 families 43 genera 55 species) and Marchantiophyta (11 families 13 genera 17 species) were determined (Appendix 1).
The comparison result for the number of taxa presented that evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri at Hangyeong Gotjawal contained rich diversity of bryophytes for the area (Table 1). This is one of the characteristics of Gotjawal area, which is highly biodiversity despite its narrow area and altitude above sea level range.
The liverwort index, which is based on the character that the liverworts and hornworts tend to prefer more humid conditions than mosses. Therefore, it is useful to compare air humidity between different sites (Nakanishi, 2001). The liverwort index of the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri was 23.6% and this value indicates that the air humidity of investigated area was relatively lower than Sobaeksan Mt. (41.9%), Deogyusan Mt. (40.8%), Gayasan Mt. (37.6%), Subtropical Forest of Nabeup-ri (30.2%), Taebaeksan Mt. (29.2%), and Dongbaek-dongsan (27.0%) (Table 1). The liverwort index of the study area is the lowest in the Gotjawal area. Seonheul Gotjawal is a wet forest where wetlands and caves have developed due to pahoehoe lava, and where Castanopsis sieboldii (Makino) Hatus. and Quercus acuta Thunb. are relatively abundant. The western Gotjawal is mostly distributed on aa lava that a dry environment is maintained due to its high permeability, and Quercus glauca Thunb. dominated and Arachniodes aristata (G. Forst.) Tindale inhabits widely. However, Subtropical Forest of Nabeup-ri is small in area but very well-conserved forest for a long time. Whereas the trees of Hangyeong Gotjawal were considered to have been frequently used by local residents in that they have small diameter at breast height and developed coppice shoots and branches. Therefore, we think that formation of patches that maintain bright and dry environment affects the composition and distribution of bryophytes. In the forest within study area, the mosses mainly occurred in sunny and dry habitats such as Racomitrium japonicum Dozy & Molk., Ptychomitrium sinense (Mitt.) A. Jaeger, and Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson were confirmed. Since a floristic study of bryophytes of Korea has not been sufficiently conducted, it is difficult to compare and analyze the liverwort index data. Therefore, we suggest that more detailed studies on the bryophyte flora of Korea should be conducted at the regional scale.

Remarkable species

We think that Plagiochila furcifolia Mitt. (Bi-ja-nal-gae-i-kki) inhabits in this area is worthy of special mention. This liverwort is distributed in Japan (Iwatsuki and Mizutani, 1972), China (So, 2001), India (Singh and Barbhuiya, 2012), and Vietnam (Shu et al., 2017). In Korea, this species was found from Bijarim Forest at Gujwa-Seongsan Gotjawal for the first time (Choi, 2013) and from Subtropical Forest of Nabeup-ri at Aewol Gotjawal for the secund time (Yim and Hyun, 2018). In case of Japan, this bryophyte species is categorized as ‘near threatened species’ in Hyogo Prefecture and as ‘vulnerable species’ in Osaka Prefecture (EnVision Conservation Office, 2018.). The species that its distributions of Korea are not known except Gotjawal area in Jejudo Island and the range of distribution is also narrow until now. However, it is hard to recognize this liverwort as species limitedly distributed in Jejudo Island and assess its rarity or conservation status. Because, in the case of Korea, the bryophyte flora is an unexplored field which has studied by a few researchers aiming mainly at Jejudo Island and not been investigated yet at a regional scale. Therefore, we suggest that a comprehensive research on the bryophyte flora of Korea should be conducted continuously.

Life-forms

We estimated the life-forms for each taxon in the study area and presented in the Table 2. Predominant life-form was weft (22 species, 30.6%), followed by mat (18 spcies, 25.0%), tall turf (15 species, 20.8%), short turf and fan (5 species, 6.9%, each of them), and tail and cushion (3 sepcies, 4.2%, each of them). We analyzed the results based on the relationship between the adaptive strategy and life-form of bryophytes according to Kürschner (2004), Uyar et al. (2007), and Glime (2017). As a result, the rates of mostly pleurocarpous bryophytes (the life-forms of mat, weft, fan, and tail) dominating in mesic to hygric sites were 66.7%, whereas mostly acrocarpous bryophytes (the life-forms of tall turf, short turf, cushion, and Annual) mainly observed in xeric habitats were 33.3% (Table 2, Appendix 1). These values indicate that the forests are widespread and dense in the study area. It is meaningful that the rates of bryophytes of mesic to hygric site type in this area are lower than in Dongbaek-dongsan (70.6%) and Subtropical Forest of Nabeup-ri (76.2%) and identical to the data of liverwort index (Yim et al., 2013; Yim and Hyun, 2018). These values supported that the subtropical forest of Nabeup-ri and Dongbaek-dongsan are relatively more humid than the study area.

Distribution pattern

We estimated the substrates for each taxon to investigate the distribution pattern. The number of taxa according to the substrate are presented in the Table 3. Upon investigation into substrates, the bryophytes on the rocks were most diverse as 59 taxa followed by soil (19 taxa), decayed tree (10 taxa), and bark (22 taxa). The results seem to be caused by that the volcanic rock masses of various sizes lay scattered over the study area offering a lot of micro-habitats for bryophytes due to one of the characteristics of Gotjawal, where the rocks of various sizes are scattered randomly.

Acknowledgments

We wish to express our sincere thanks to two anonymous referees for their invaluable comments to improve the manuscript.

NOTES

Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Fig. 1.
The map showing the location of Evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri and distribution of Gotjawal terrain, Jejudo Island, Korea. Gotjawal terrain designated by the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province (1997) are represented by colored areas.
kjpt-49-3-215f1.jpg
Table 1.
Comparison to the bryophyte species richness levels and liverwort indexes of evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri at Hangyeong Gotjawal and other localities.
Locality Area (km2) No. of species Liverwort index
Gotjawal area
  Evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri (Hangyeong Gotjawal) 0.501 72 23.6
  Dongbaek-dongsan (Seonheul Gotjawal) 1.420 85 27.0
  Subtropical Forest of Nabeup-ri (Aewol Gotjawal) 0.034 63 30.2
Mountain area
  Sobaeksan Mt. 322.011 236 41.9
  Deogyusan Mt. 232.000 311 40.8
  Gayasan Mt. 76.256 173 37.6
  Taebaeksan Mt. 17.440 144 29.2
Table. 2
The number of taxa and percentage composition according to the life-forms of bryophytes in the study area.
Life-forms No. of taxa Percentage
Xeric habitat type 24 33.3
  Annuals 1 1.4
  Cushions 3 4.2
  Short turfs 5 6.9
  Tall turfs 15 20.8
Mesic to hygric site type 48 66.7
  Tails 3 4.2
  Fans 5 6.9
  Mats 18 25.0
  Wefts 22 30.6
Total 72 100.0
Table 3.
The number of taxa according to the substrate in the study area.
Substrate No. of taxa
Specific to only one substrate
  Epilithic 33
  Epiphytic 1
  Epixylous 1
  On the soil 8
Common to two or more substrates
  Epilithic and epiphytic 15
  Epilithic and on the soil 3
  Epilithic and epixylous 1
  Epiphytic and epixylous 1
  Epixylous and on the soil 2
  Epilithic, epiphytic and epixylous 1
  Epilithic, epiphytic and on the soil 2
  Epilithic, epixylous and on the soil 2
  Epilithic, epiphytic, epixylous and on the soil 2
Total 72

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APPENDICES

Appendix 1.

Floristic list of the evergreen broad-leaved forest of Cheongsu-ri at Hangyeong Gotjawal in Korea.

Taxa Korean name Life-form Substrate Voucher No. (Eun-Young Yim-)
Bryophyta Schimp. 선류식물문
Polytrichaceae Schwägr. 솔이끼과
Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv. 주름솔이끼 Tall turfs L SYG006
Pogonatum inflexum (Lindb.) Sande Lac. 아기들솔이끼 Tall turfs S SYG062
Funariaceae Schwägr. 표주박이끼과
Physcomitrium sphaericum (C. Ludw.) Fürnr. 아기풍경이끼 Short turfs L SYG085
Grimmiaceae Arn. 고깔바위이끼과
Grimmia pilifera P. Beauv. 흰털고깔바위이끼 Cushions L SYG049
Racomitrium japonicum Dozy & Molk. 늦은서리이끼 Tall turfs S SYG198
Fissidentaceae Schimp. 봉황이끼과
Fissidens dubius P. Beauv. 벼슬봉황이끼 Tall turfs L SYG328
Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. 작은봉황이끼 Tall turfs L SYG030
Ptychomitriaceae Schimp. 곱슬이끼과
Ptychomitrium dentatum (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 물가곱슬이끼 Cushions L SYG069
Ptychomitrium sinense (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 곱슬이끼 Cushions L SYG070
Ditrichaceae Limpr. 금실이끼과
Ditrichum pallidum (Hedw.) Hampe 금실이끼 Short turfs S SYG109
Pottiaceae Hampe 꼬마이끼과
Weissia controversa Hedw. 꼬마이끼 Short turfs S SYG110
Bryaceae Schwägr. 은이끼과
Brachymenium nepalense var. clavulum (Mitt.) Ochi 아기노란참외이끼 Short turfs LP SYG012
Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. 긴목수세미이끼 Tall turfs S SYG074
Rosulabryum capillare (Hedw.) J.R. Spence 철사이끼 Short turfs L SYG011
Mniaceae Schwägr. 참이끼과
Mnium ambiguum H. Müll. 납작맥초롱이끼 Tall turfs L SYG311
Plagiomnium acutum (Lindb.) T. J. Kop. 아기들덩굴초롱이끼 Tall turfs LS SYG159
Trachycystis microphylla (Dozy & Molk.) Lindb. 아기초롱이끼 Tall turfs LP SYG134
Bartramiaceae Schwägr. 구슬이끼과
Philonotis thwaitesii Mitt. 아기물가이끼 Tall turfs L SYG089
Philonotis turneriana (Schwägr.) Mitt. 큰물가이끼 Tall turfs L SYG080
Hedwigiaceae Schimp. 톳이끼과
Hedwigia ciliata (Hedw.) P. Beauv. 톳이끼 Tall turfs L SYG015
Thuidiaceae Schimp. 깃털이끼과
Anomodon viticulosus (Hedw.) Hook. & 굽은명주실이끼 Tails L SYG019
Claopodium aciculum (Broth.) Broth. 가시이끼 Wefts L SYG052
Haplocladium angustifolium (Hampe & Müll. Hal.) Broth. 침작은명주실이끼 Wefts LPXS SYG154
Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.) Broth. 작은명주실이끼 Wefts LP SYG142
Haplohymenium pseudotriste (Müll. Hal.) Broth. 꼬마바위실이끼 Wefts LP SYG120
Herpetineuron toccoae (Sull. & Lesq.) Cardot 나선이끼 Tails LP SYG199
Hylocomiopsis ovicarpa (Besch.) Cardot 아기호랑꼬리이끼 Wefts L SYG038
Pelekium versicolor (Hornsch. ex Müll. Hal.) Touw 아기깃털이끼 Wefts LPXS SYG119
Thuidium cymbifolium (Dozy & Molk.) Dozy & Molk. 물가깃털이끼 Wefts L SYG076
Thuidium kanedae Sakurai 깃털이끼 Wefts LS SYG124
Brachytheciaceae Schimp. 양털이끼과
Brachythecium brotheri Paris 큰양털이끼 Wefts L SYG104
Brachythecium buchananii (Hook.) A. Jaeger 긴양털이끼 Wefts L SYG098
Brachythecium plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp. 날개양털이끼 Wefts LP SYG184
Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) Schimp. 양털이끼 Wefts LXS SYG138
Bryhnia novae-angliae (Sull. & Lesq.) Grout 세모양털이끼 Wefts L SYG267
Cirriphyllum piliferum (Hedw.) Grout 겉끈양털이끼 Wefts L SYG274
Eurhynchium savatieri Schimp. ex Besch. 가는부리이끼 Wefts LPS SYG139
Rhynchostegium pallidifolium (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 아기양털부리이끼 Wefts LP SYG227
Hypnaceae Schimp. 털깃털이끼과
Homomallium connexum (Cardot) Broth. 쌍끝양털이끼 Wefts PX SYG230
Hypnum oldhamii (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 가는털깃털이끼 Wefts L SYG055
Hypnum plumaeforme Wilson 털깃털이끼 Wefts XS SYG394
Isopterygium minutirameum (Müll. Hal.) A. Jaeger 겉주목이끼 Wefts L SYG122
Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum (Sull. & Lesq.) Z. Iwats. 빨간겉주목이끼 Mats LS SYG354
Pylaisiadelpha tenuirostris (Bruch & Schimp. ex Sull.) W. R. Buck 무성아실이끼 Mats P SYG017
Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) M. Fleisch. 주목이끼 Mats LPX SYG004
Plagiotheciaceae M. Fleisch. 산주목이끼과
Plagiothecium nemorale (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 산주목이끼 Mats LP SYG128
Entodontaceae Kindb. 윤이끼과
Entodon challengeri (Paris) Cardot 넓은잎윤이끼 Wefts L SYG061
Entodon sullivantii (Müll. Hal.) Lindb. 가는윤이끼 Wefts LXS SYG151
Sematophyllaceae Broth. 나무실이끼과
Sematophyllum subhumile (Müll. Hal.) M. Fleisch. 나무실이끼 Mats X SYG022
Neckeraceae Schimp. 납작이끼과
Homalia japonica Besch. 꼬리윤납작이끼 Fans L SYG078
Homalia trichomanoides (Hedw.) Schimp. 윤납작이끼 Fans LP SYG079
Neckeropsis nitidula (Mitt.) M. Fleisch. 리본납작이끼 Fans LP SYG130
Pseudanomodon giraldii (Müll. Hal.) Ignatov & Fedosov 큰명주실이끼 Tails L SYG029
Thamnobryum plicatulum (Sande Lac.) Z. Iwats. 그늘대호꼬리이끼 Fans L SYG135
Thamnobryum subseriatum (Mitt. ex Sande Lac.) B. C. Tan 대호꼬리이끼 Fans XS SYG003
Marchantiophyta Stotler & Crand. -Stotl. 태류식물문
Marchantiaceae Lindl. 우산이끼과
Marchantia polymorpha L. 우산이끼 Mats S SYG090
Aytoniaceae Cavers 삿갓우산이끼과
Reboulia hemisphaerica (L.) Raddi 삿갓우산이끼 Mats S SYG097
Conocephalaceae Müll. Frib. ex Grolle 패랭이우산이끼과
Conocephalum conicum (L.) Dumort. 패랭이우산이끼 Mats L SYG091
Ricciaceae Rchb. 밭둥근이끼과
Riccia fluitans L. 물긴가지이끼 Annuals S SYG415
Metzgeriaceae H. Klinggr. 리본이끼과
Metzgeria lindbergii Schiffn. 리본이끼 Mats LP SYG118
Porellaceae Cavers 세줄이끼과
Porella ulophylla (Steph.) S. Hatt. 주름세줄이끼 Mats LX SYG180
Porella vernicosa Lindb. 가시세줄이끼 Mats L SYG157
Radulaceae Müll. Frib. 부채이끼과
Radula japonica Gottsche ex Steph. 부채이끼 Mats LP SYG178
Frullaniaceae Lorch 지네이끼과
Frullania ericoides (Nees) Mont. 초록지네이끼 Mats LP SYG028
Lejeuneaceae Cavers 작은귀이끼과
Lejeunea japonica Mitt. 작은귀이끼 Mats LPS SYG156
Trocholejeunea sandvicensis (Gottsche) Mizut. 둥근귀이끼 Mats LP SYG027
Lophocoleaceae Müll. Frib. ex Vanden Berghen 두끝벼슬이끼과
Heteroscyphus argutus (Nees) Schiffn. 아기비늘이끼 Mats L SYG126
Heteroscyphus planus (Mitt.) Schiffn. 비늘이끼 Mats LP SYG132
Lophocolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dumort. 두끝벼슬이끼 Mats L SYG127
Plagiochilaceae Müll. Frib. 날개이끼과
Plagiochila furcifolia Mitt. 비자날개이끼 Tall turfs L SYG121
Plagiochila ovalifolia Mitt. 둥근날개이끼 Tall turfs L SYG117
Plagiochila sciophila Nees ex Lindenb. 아기날개이끼 Tall turfs L SYG141

L, epilithic; P, epiphytic; X, epixylous; S, on the soil.

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