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Korean J. Pl. Taxon > Volume 45(2); 2015 > Article
한국 미기록 식물: 갯바늘골(사초과)

적 요

사초과의 Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer가 인천광역시 강화군에서 발견되었다. 이 종은 작은 방추형의 괴경, 건조했을 때 격막이 없는 줄기, 3개의 주두 및 암술대 기부와 수과 사이에 홈이 없는 특징을 가지고 있어 한국에 분포하는 근연 분류군들과 구분된다. 국명은 생육지를 고려하여 ‘갯바늘골’로 신칭하였고, 이에 대한 기재, 도해, 사진 및 검색표를 제시하였다.

Abstract

Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer (Cyperaceae), was found in Ganghwa-gun, Incheon Metropolitan City in Korea. This species is distinguished from related taxa in Korea by its small fusiform tubers, culms without septa when dry, 3-fid stigmas and style base confluent with the apex of achene. This taxon was named ‘Gaet-ba-neul-gol’ in Korean based on its habitat. We provide its description, illustrations, photographs and a key to the related taxa in Korea.

Eleocharis R. Br. (Cyperaceae Juss.) includes about 200 species and is widely distributed (González-Elizondo and Peterson, 1997). It is characterized by unbranched culms, leaves basal and reduced to tubular sheaths, inflorescence of a single terminal spikelet, style base persistent as a tubercle (González-Elizondo and Peterson, 1997; Goetghebeur, 1998; Smith et al., 2002; Dai and Strong, 2010).
In worldwide classification of the genus, Svenson (1929a, 1929b, 1929c, 1929d, 1929e, 1932a, 1932b, 1934b, 1937a, 1937b, 1939a, 1939b, 1939c) recognized 9 series and 2 subseries. In the most recent classification, González-Elizondo and Peterson (1997) recognized 4 subgenera, 7 sections, 8 series and 7 subseries based on the morphology of the achenes and scales. But, these morphological infrageneric classifications are not supported by molecular studies (Roalson and Friar, 2000; Yano et al., 2004).
Thirteen taxa of Eleocharis R. Br. are distributed in Korea (Oh and Lee, 1997; Oh, 2006; Kang et al., 2015). Among them, E. changchaensis Y. C. Oh & G. Lee is an illegitimate name without Latin description and type (IPNI, 2015). In this study, Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer is reported as a newly founded taxon in Korea. In addition, we provide its description, illustrations, photographs and a key of related taxa.

Taxonomic Treatment

Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer, Comp. Fl. German. (ed. 2) 1: 93 (1836). (Figs 1, 2)
Type: In inundatis ripis lacus Kölmienfis in Mansfeldia (type: BM, photograph!).
Scirpus nanus Spreng., Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 1: 4 (1813) non Poiret (1805).
Scirpus parvulus Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg. 2: 124 (1817).
Eleogiton parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link, Hort. Berol. 1: 285 (1827).
Trichophorum parvulum (Roem. & Schult.) Pignatti, Arch. Bot. (Forlì) 34: 7 (1958).
Perennials. Roots fibrous. Rhizomes terminated by tubers; tubers fusiform, 2–4.5 mm long. Culms longer than leaves, 0.9–3 cm long. Leaves 1.1–2.6 cm long. Spikelet ovoid, 1.7–3.7 mm long, 0.9–2.2 mm wide. Scales stramineous, 6–10 per spikelet, 1.2–2 mm long, apex rounded to subacute. Perianth bristles 4, equaling or slightly exceeding achene, minutely retrorsely spinulose. Stamens 3; filaments 1–1.8 mm long; anthers 0.3–0.8 mm long. Stigmas 3. Achenes obovate, trigonous, 0.8–1.5 mm long, 0.4–0.8 mm wide, style base triangular, confluent with apex of achene.
  • Korean name: Gaet-ba-neul-gol (갯바늘골).

  • Fruiting: Sep. to Oct.

  • Distribution: Africa, America, Asia, Australia, Europe and South Korea.

  • Korea: Incheon Metropolitan City.

  • Voucher specimens: Korea, Incheon Metropolitan City, Gangwha-gun, Whado-myeon, Sagi-ri, 23 Sep. 2014, S. H. Park 144322 (2 sheets, KH); 13 Oct. 2014. S. H. Park 145479 (7 sheets, KH).

Note: E. parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer belongs to Eleocharis subg. Eleocharis sect. Pauvulae which is usually treated as monotypic (González-Elizondo and Peterson, 1997; Smith et al., 2002). This species is distinguished from taxa of Eleocharis by having small fusiform tubers and style base confluent with apex of achene (Svenson, 1929; González-Elizondo and Peterson, 1997; Smith et al., 2002). It grows at coastal saline wetlands in Korea and is also found at salt marshes, salt lakes and brackish mud or sand along the seacoast in Africa, America, Asia, Australia and Europe (Svenson, 1929; Smith et al., 2002; Adam, 2009; Dai and Strong, 2010; Hoshino et al., 2011). E. parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer is used for ornament (Simpson and Inglis, 2001). This species was named ‘Gaet-ba-neul-gol’ in Korean based on its habitat.

A key to E. parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer and its related taxa in Korea

  • 1. Culms with transverse septa when dry; achenes longer than 1.9 mm.

    • 2. Scales rounded at apex ·················· E. dulcis (남방개)

    • 2. Scales obtuse at apex ·············· E. kuroguwai (올방개)

  • 1. Culms without transverse septa when dry; achenes shorter than 1.9 mm.

    • 3. Plants without fusiform tubers; style base separated from achene by a constriction.

      • 4. Stigmas 2.

        • 5. Style base as wide as achene.

          • 6. Perianth bristles 4–5 ················································································ E. kamtschatica (올방개아재비)

          • 6. Perianth bristles absent ················································· E. kamtschatica f. reducta (무화피올방개아재비)

      • 5. Style base 1/2 as wide as achene ·······························

        • 7. Perianth bristles 5–6 ····························································· E. mamillata var. cyclocarpa (물꼬챙이골)

        • 7. Perianth bristles 4 ······························································································ E. equisetiformis (까락골)

    • 4. Stigmas 3.

      • 8. Culms 3–5-angled.

        • 9. Perianth bristles 4 ················································································· E. acicularis f. longiseta (쇠털골)

        • 9. Perianth bristles 6.

          • 10. Perianth bristles plumose ··············································································· E. wichurai (좀네모골)

          • 10. Perianth bristles spinulose ··········································································E. × yezoensis (긴바늘골)

    • 8. Culms terete.

      • 11. Style base 2/3–3/4 as wide as achene ········································· E. attenuata f. laeviseta (참바늘골)

      • 11. Style base 1/3 as wide as or shorter than achene.

        • 12. Perianth bristles longer than tip of style base ·························· E. congesta var. japonica (바늘골)

        • 12. Perianth bristles shorter than tip of style base ···················· E. congesta var. thermalis (쇠바늘골)

  • 3. Plants with fusiform tubers; style base confluent with apex of achene ·························· E. parvula (갯바늘골)

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by ‘The Taxonomic Study of Cyperaceae in Korea (KNA1-1-9, 12-2)’ funded by Korea National Arboretum. We thank Prof. Hoshino of Okayama University of Science for comments and Hyeryun Jo for illustrations.

Fig. 1.
Photographs of Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer. A. Habit; B. Spikelets; C. Achenes.
kjpt-45-2-169f1.gif
Fig. 2.
Illustrations of Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Bluff, Nees & Schauer. A. Habit; B. Tuber; C. Spikelet; D. Scale; E. Abaxial view of achene; F. Side view of achene.
kjpt-45-2-169f2.gif

Literature Cited

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Goetghebeur, P. 1998. Cyperaceae. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4: Kubitzki, K (ed.), Springer, Berlin. Pp. 141-190.
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